Solar PV – Pros & Cons of Solar Photovoltaic Systems

solar pv panels on house

The term solar PV (photovoltaic) refers to an array of cells containing a solar photovoltaic material that converts solar radiation into direct current electricity.

In fact, reports claim photovoltaic production has doubled every two years since 2002 making it the world’s fastest-growing solar power and energy technology as a whole.

How do Solar PV systems work?

Solar PV systems work by converting light into electrical power. This is achieved using a thin layer of semi-conducting material, most commonly silicon, enclosed in a glass or plastic casing. These can range in size with small versions used on watches and calculators to a system of hundreds of square metres of linked up to make an array to power large buildings.

When exposed to sunlight the semi-conducting material causes electrons in the materials’ atoms to be knocked loose. The electrons that are knocked loose then flow through the material to produce an electric current known as a direct current (DC).

The direct current is carried through wiring to an inverter which converts the current to alternating current (AC) so it can be connected to your property’s main electricity distribution board which either used within the home or fed back into the national grid.

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Pros and Cons of Solar PV systems


  • You can benefit from the Governments feed-in tariff which pays a set rate per kWh of electricity generated and an additional rate for any exported back to the national grid.
  • The feed-in tariff is guaranteed by the Government for 20 years.
  • Panels designed for European countries generate power even on cloudy days, they simply need light to produce electricity.
  • Clean energy means you reduce your carbon emissions by up to 1 tonne per annum.
  • Producing your own power protects against rising energy prices.


  • A large area of unshaded south, south-west or south-east facing roof is required to maiximise payback. Smaller systems can be installed but payback will be longer.
  • Panels degrade over time by approximately 20% over 25 years, this however is taken into account in most reputable suppliers calculations.
  • It may be beneficial to replace the inverter after 10 years to optimise power generation, although this is not essential.

You can calculate potential earnings via our Solar PV Calculator.

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